You are viewing Youlish Rhodes Sr.'s 23andMe Ancestry report.

Paternal Haplogroup

You descend from a long line of men that can be traced back to eastern Africa over 275,000 years ago. These are the men of your paternal line, and your paternal haplogroup sheds light on their story.

Youlish, you belong to paternal haplogroup G-L497.

As our ancestors ventured out of eastern Africa, they branched off in diverse groups that crossed and recrossed the globe over tens of thousands of years. Some of their migrations can be traced through haplogroups, families of lineages that descend from a common ancestor. Your paternal haplogroup can reveal the path followed by the men of your paternal line.

Migrations of Your Paternal Line

A
275,000 Years Ago
F-M89
76,000 Years Ago
G-M201
54,000 Years Ago

Haplogroup A

275,000 Years Ago

The stories of all of our paternal lines can be traced back over 275,000 years to just one man: the common ancestor of haplogroup A. Current evidence suggests he was one of thousands of men who lived in eastern Africa at the time. However, while his male-line descendants passed down their Y chromosomes generation after generation, the lineages from the other men died out. Over time his lineage alone gave rise to all other haplogroups that exist today.

Haplogroup F-M89

76,000 Years Ago

For more than 100,000 years, your paternal-line ancestors gradually moved north, following available prey and resources as a shifting climate made new routes hospitable and sealed off others. Then, around 60,000 years ago, a small group ventured across the Red Sea and deeper into southwest Asia. Your ancestors were among these men, and the next step in their story is marked by the rise of haplogroup F-M89 in the Arabian Peninsula.

Haplogroup G-M201

54,000 Years Ago

While some men continued on from the Middle East immediately, your paternal ancestors stayed put — at least momentarily. Haplogroup G-M201 likely arose in the region of the Black and Caspian Seas nearly 54,000 years ago. Later, men expanded out of the Middle East carrying G-M201 across much of southern Europe and northern Africa. A separate, smaller migration carried G-M201 eastward, where it is seen in low frequencies in groups as far east as China.

G-M201

54,000
Years Ago

Origin and Migrations of Haplogroup G-M201

The first man to carry haplogroup G-M201 likely lived in southwestern Asia or the Caucasus between 46,000 and 54,000 years ago. His male-line descendants appear to remained rooted in the region for tens of thousands of years while the Ice Age was in full swing. Then, around 11,500 years ago, the Ice Age finally gave way to the warmer climate era of today. As the environment changed, humans in the heart of the Middle East domesticated plants and established the first sedentary farming civilizations. Farming technology revolutionized human life, and with the gentler climate and new abundance of food, human populations boomed. New waves of migration radiated out from the Fertile Crescent. Men bearing haplogroup G-M201 who took part in these migrations spread the lineage around the Mediterranean, where their descendants can be found today.

Possibly due to the haplogroup's origin near the region, men bearing G-M201 and its branches reach unusually high levels among some populations in the Caucasus, where they make up more than 60% of North Ossetian men and about 30% of Georgian men. The haplogroup also remains common in the Middle East, and can be found concentrated in some populations in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Farther west, the presence of haplogroup G is much less uniform. In Europe there are concentrations of haplogroup G in northern Sardinia (25%), across northeastern Italy (12%), and in parts of southern France and the Tyrol region of western Austria. There are even a few examples of haplogroup G in Sweden, where it is generally found in less than 4% of men. But Europe wasn't the only destination of men bearing haplogroup G. Recent migrations from the Middle East, perhaps dating to the Arab expansion of the early to mid 8th century C.E., brought non-African paternal lineages into northern Africa. Today about one third of Moroccans bear haplogroup G.

G-L497

11,000
Years Ago

Your paternal haplogroup, G-L497, traces back to a man who lived approximately 11,000 years ago.

That's nearly 440 generations ago! What happened between then and now? As researchers and citizen scientists discover more about your haplogroup, new details may be added to the story of your paternal line.

G-L497

Today

G-L497 is relatively common among 23andMe customers.

Today, you share your haplogroup with all the men who are paternal-line descendants of the common ancestor of G-L497, including other 23andMe customers.
1 in 164
23andMe customers share your haplogroup assignment.

References

Your haplogroup was common in the men of the Linear Pottery Culture.

Research suggests that your haplogroup, a branch of G-L497, is associated with an ancient culture called the Linear Pottery Culture, which is linked with the spread of agriculture across Europe. Linear Pottery Culture was given its name because of the distinctive lined pattern seen on pottery relics at archaeological sites from the period. The culture began on the plains of Hungary around 5700 BC, and quickly spread west to the Rhine, north to central Poland, and east to Ukraine.

With the Linear Pottery Culture came domesticated plants and animals, as well as new architectural styles, settlement plans, burial rituals, pottery, and stone artifacts. Members of your haplogroup, who are still seen throughout Europe today, may also have come with them. The impact that the agricultural revolution and this distinctive culture had on human history is incalculable, as they set in motion massive population growth that has continued for 10,000 years.

The Genetics of Paternal Haplogroups

Read Scientific Details

Your haplogroup can tell you about your paternal line.


Each generation, fathers pass copies of their Y chromosomes on to their sons. Whereas most of the genome exists in two copies that exchange pieces between generations in a process called recombination, the Y chromosome is transmitted unshuffled. Because of this unusual pattern of inheritance, the Y contains rich information about paternal lineages.

A small number of DNA changes, called mutations, generally occur from one generation to the next. Because the Y chromosome does not recombine between generations, these mutations accumulate in patterns that uniquely mark individual lineages, and scientists can compare the resulting sequence differences by constructing a tree. This tree shows how paternal lineages relate to one another, including the observations that all human paternal lineages share a most recent common ancestor approximately 275,000 years ago.

The term "haplogroup" refers to a family of lineages that share a common ancestor and, therefore, a particular set of mutations. Each paternal haplogroup is named with a letter indicating the major cluster of branches to which it belongs, followed by the name of a mutation that is shared by a subset of the major cluster.

We identify your haplogroups by determining which branches of the Y-chromosome tree correspond to your DNA. Because more closely related lineages tend to share geographic roots, your haplogroup can provide insight into the origins of some of your ancient ancestors.

What's the story of your paternal line?

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