The first man to carry haplogroup G-M201 likely lived in southwestern Asia or the Caucasus between 46,000 and 54,000 years ago. His male-line descendants appear to remained rooted in the region for tens of thousands of years while the Ice Age was in full swing. Then, around 11,500 years ago, the Ice Age finally gave way to the warmer climate era of today. As the environment changed, humans in the heart of the Middle East domesticated plants and established the first sedentary farming civilizations. Farming technology revolutionized human life, and with the gentler climate and new abundance of food, human populations boomed. New waves of migration radiated out from the Fertile Crescent. Men bearing haplogroup G-M201 who took part in these migrations spread the lineage around the Mediterranean, where their descendants can be found today.
Possibly due to the haplogroup's origin near the region, men bearing G-M201 and its branches reach unusually high levels among some populations in the Caucasus, where they make up more than 60% of North Ossetian men and about 30% of Georgian men. The haplogroup also remains common in the Middle East, and can be found concentrated in some populations in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Farther west, the presence of haplogroup G is much less uniform. In Europe there are concentrations of haplogroup G in northern Sardinia (25%), across northeastern Italy (12%), and in parts of southern France and the Tyrol region of western Austria. There are even a few examples of haplogroup G in Sweden, where it is generally found in less than 4% of men. But Europe wasn't the only destination of men bearing haplogroup G. Recent migrations from the Middle East, perhaps dating to the Arab expansion of the early to mid 8th century C.E., brought non-African paternal lineages into northern Africa. Today about one third of Moroccans bear haplogroup G.