You are viewing Michelle Leonard's 23andMe Ancestry report.

Michelle's DNA Family

Learn about Michelle's DNA Relatives, the diverse group of 23andMe customers who have DNA in common with her. Only individuals who have chosen to participate in DNA Relatives are the subject of this report.

Calculating Your DNA Family Breakdown…

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Determining the geographical distribution of your DNA Relatives…

Analyzing the Ancestry Composition patterns of your DNA Relatives…

Calculating enriched and depleted traits in your DNA Relatives…

Read Scientific Details

How 23andMe identifies DNA Relatives

To identify Michelle's DNA Relatives, we use an algorithm that finds segments of her DNA that are identical to DNA segments of other 23andMe customers. When these segments are sufficiently long, we infer that they were inherited from a recent common ancestor. These segments are known as "identical by descent," or IBD. Our algorithm searches for these matches across virtually her entire genome, so we can identify DNA Relatives on any branch of her family tree.

Every time DNA is passed from one generation to the next, the two chromosomes in each pair are randomly shuffled with each other in a process called recombination. Then, only half of this new DNA — one set of chromosomes — is passed down to each child. The total amount of DNA passed down from an ancestor is cut approximately in half each generation. Through this process, long inherited segments are broken up generation by generation into multiple shorter ones and sometimes lost altogether.

Despite all of this generational shuffling, DNA Relatives is highly sensitive and can pick up matches ranging from siblings and uncles to distant eighth cousins — individuals that share great-great-great-great-great-great-great grandparents with Michelle. It may not always be obvious how she shares a connection with someone, but that's where our DNA Relatives tool comes in.

See our Customer Care pages for more information:

Shared segments between cousins

Inheritance family tree graphic.

A closer look at the matching segment

An example graphic showing a matching segment between you and your cousin.

Sources of information used in this report

The Your DNA Family report provides aggregated summaries of several attributes of Michelle's DNA Relatives. The following information sources are used in the report:

Report Section
Close to distant DNA Relatives

Computed IBD results from the DNA Relatives tool.

Locations of her DNA Relatives

Answers to survey questions by her DNA Relatives.

Ancestries of her DNA Relatives

Computed results from the Ancestry Composition report.

Traits and behaviors in her 23andMe DNA Family

Answers to survey questions by her DNA Relatives.

Traits in Your DNA Family

We started with a curated list of interesting traits and behaviors from the set of surveys that 23andMe customers — including many of Michelle's DNA Relatives — have chosen to answer. Next, we calculated the percentage of her DNA Relatives who reported each trait and the percentage of all 23andMe customers who reported that same trait. Finally, we compared these two percentages and calculated the percentage increase in the concentration of each trait in her 23andMe DNA family. Michelle's result shows these traits ranked by the size of the increase or decrease.

This result does not reflect her likelihood of having a trait or characteristic.

How enrichment is calculated: An example

A trait that is enriched by 200% may be broken down like this.



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