You are viewing Youlish Rhodes Sr.'s 23andMe Ancestry report.

Youlish's Neanderthal Ancestry

Neanderthals were ancient humans who interbred with modern humans before becoming extinct 40,000 years ago. This report tells you how much of Youlish's ancestry can be traced back to Neanderthals.

Youlish has 52 Neanderthal variants.

Youlish's
Neanderthal variants
52

This is less than
99% of 23andMe Customers

Youlish has fewer Neanderthal variants than 99% of 23andMe customers.
However, his Neanderthal ancestry accounts for less than 4% of his overall DNA.

How to interpret this result

  • This report tells you whether Youlish has certain genetic variants of Neanderthal origin out of the 2872 Neanderthal variants we test.
  • It also tells you whether he has any Neanderthal variants that are associated with traits in 23andMe customers.
  • It can't tell you the precise portion of his genome that comes from Neanderthals or about genetic variants of Neanderthal origin not tested by 23andMe.

Some of Youlish's traits may be influenced by having Neanderthal variants.

Scientists at 23andMe identified associations between Neanderthal variants and certain physical traits. If Youlish has certain Neanderthal variants, it means that some of his physical traits may trace back to Neanderthal ancestors. Read our white paper on Neanderthal inferences.

Variant(s) found

A Straight hair

0 Variants Found

He has 0 Neanderthal variants associated with having straighter hair.

0

B Less likely to sneeze after eating dark chocolate

0 Variants Found

He has 0 Neanderthal variants associated with a reduced tendency to sneeze after eating dark chocolate.

0

C Less back hair

0 Variants Found

He has 0 Neanderthal variants associated with having less back hair.

0

D Height

0 Variants Found

He has 0 Neanderthal variants associated with his height.

0

A Brief History of Neanderthals

Introduction
600,000 Years Ago
300,000 Years Ago - Africa
200,000 Years Ago - Eurasia
60,000 Years Ago
Today

Introduction

Introduction

Over the past 150 years, scientists have found bones belonging to an extinct population of ancient humans. These ancient humans are known as Neanderthals and were named after the site where their bones were first identified (Neander Valley, Germany). Neanderthals and modern humans share a common ancestor as well as many morphological and social traits, but differed in key respects. Over the past decade, genome sequencing has shed more light on the Neanderthal and our complicated relationship with them.

Neander Valley, located
                    just east of Düsseldorf, was a limestone quarry when the first archaic bones were discovered.

600,000 Years Ago

Neanderthals and Modern Humans Share a Common Ancestor

The common ancestor of modern humans and Neanderthals is thought to be an extinct hominin named Homo heidelbergensis. The species inhabited much of Africa, Europe and probably Asia from at least 700,000 years ago until about 200,000 years ago.

Homo heidelbergensis lived
                    throughout Africa and much of southwestern Eurasia, from the Atlantic Coast to the Indus
                    River Valley.

300,000 Years Ago - Africa

Modern Humans Evolve Within Africa

Homo heidelbergensis continued to evolve in Africa, eventually becoming anatomically-modern humans. The oldest remains that can be ascribed to anatomically-modern humans come from a site named Jebel Irhoud in Morocco that dates to 300,000 years ago.

The ancestors of modern humans
                    evolved higher foreheads with smaller brow bridges, eye sockets, and noses on flatter faces. They also
                    developed rounder skulls.

200,000 Years Ago - Eurasia

Neanderthals Evolve Outside of Africa

By about 200,000 years ago, the European branch of the Homo heidelbergensis population had evolved into what we refer to as Neanderthals. Contrary to the popular "caveman" stereotype, Neanderthals were a lot like modern humans and exhibited complex social behaviors. The most distinctive characteristics of Neanderthal remains are their wide, robust bodies, relatively short limbs, and projecting mid-faces.

In contrast to modern humans,
                    Neanderthals had lower foreheads above heavy brow bridges and large eye sockets and noses. Their mid-faces
                    projected forward more than in modern humans, and their skulls were lower and longer overall.

60,000 Years Ago

Neanderthals and Modern Humans Converge

Around 60,000 years ago, modern humans started to explore beyond Africa, encountering and interbreeding with their Neanderthal neighbors. Skeletal remains found in the Manot Cave in Israel and elsewhere suggest that these two groups likely interbred in the Middle East or Europe. Their descendants radiated out across Europe, Asia, Australia and eventually the Americas.

After evolving in different
                    regions, modern humans converged with Neanderthals once again in the Middle East, Europe, and perhaps
                    even farther throughout Eurasia.

Today

African and Non-African Populations Differ in Their Neanderthal Ancestry

Neanderthal ancestry in present-day populations is largely derived from these ancient migrations and interbreeding events. Non-African populations have Neanderthal ancestry amounting to about 1-2% of their genomes. With few exceptions, Sub-Saharan African populations have virtually no Neanderthal ancestry. Average numbers from the 23andMe database are shown to illustrate this difference.

Twenty-three and Me customers from
                    non-African populations average two-hundred and eighty Neanderthal variants. Customers from sub-Saharan
                    African populations have only twenty variants, on average.
Read Scientific Details

What is so important about Neanderthals?

For many years, scientists were limited to scraping together clues from fragments of bones and other materials to discover who we are and where we come from. New techniques have allowed scientists to look even closer at DNA hidden within those bones. While the full picture of our past is still emerging, it is clear that as early as 50,000 years ago there were at least three different types of humans. Although only one of these groups (so-called "anatomically-modern humans") survived, we now know that they interbred with the other groups, including Neanderthals, along the way.

23andMe customers with Neanderthal variants have a direct Neanderthal ancestor—a grandparent to the 2,000th degree. What that means is still uncertain, but it's fascinating to think that we may have inherited some of our traits and behaviors from them.

Youlish's Neanderthal Ancestry

23andMe tests for Neanderthal ancestry at 1,436 markers scattered across the genome. At each of these markers he can have a genetic variant that evolved in Neanderthals and came back into the human lineage when the two groups interbred. Because he inherits variants from both of his parents, he can have 0, 1, or 2 copies of the Neanderthal variant at each marker. We report Youlish's total number of Neanderthal variant copies, which is therefore a number between 0 and 2,872. However, nobody has all 2,872 — the most we've ever seen in a 23andMe customer is less than 400.

Select tested locations

Markers tested for Neanderthal ancestry

1436

Markers where he has two Neanderthal variants

0 x 2

Markers where he has one Neanderthal variant

52

Youlish's Neanderthal Variant Total

52

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

X

Youlish has 0 variants associated with Neanderthal traits.

Variants Detected
View All Tested Markers
View All Tested Markers
Marker Tested
Your Genotype*
Additional Information

rs4849721

Gene: Near the EN1 gene
Trait: Less back hair

G

Human copy from one of your parents

G

Human copy from your other parent
See all information
See all information
Marker Tested
Your Genotype*

  • Biological explanation
    The variant tested is a change from a G to a T in a DNA sequence near the EN1 gene. Each copy of a T at this position is associated with slightly less back hair than average.

  • Typical vs. variant DNA sequence

    G

    Typical Sequence
    Substitution

    T

    Variant Sequence

  • References [ 7 ]

rs12458349

Gene: Near the PHLPP1 gene
Trait: Straight hair

T

Human copy from one of your parents

T

Human copy from your other parent
See all information
See all information
Marker Tested
Your Genotype*

  • Biological explanation
    The variant tested is a change from a T to a G in a DNA sequence near the PHLPP1 gene. Each copy of a G at this position is associated with having slightly straighter hair than average.

  • Typical vs. variant DNA sequence

    T

    Typical Sequence
    Substitution

    G

    Variant Sequence

  • References [ 7 ]

rs7544462

Gene: MEAF6
Trait: Height

A

Human copy from one of your parents

A

Human copy from your other parent
See all information
See all information
Marker Tested
Your Genotype*

  • Biological explanation
    The variant tested is a change from an A to a C in a DNA sequence in the MEAF6 gene. Each copy of a C at this position is associated with being about 0.1 inches shorter than average.

  • Typical vs. variant DNA sequence

    A

    Typical Sequence
    Substitution

    C

    Variant Sequence

  • References [ 7 ]

rs1877547

Gene: LPP
Trait: Height

G

Human copy from one of your parents

G

Human copy from your other parent
See all information
See all information
Marker Tested
Your Genotype*

  • Biological explanation
    The variant tested is a change from a G to an A in a DNA sequence in the LPP gene. Each copy of a A at this position is associated with being about 0.1 inches taller than average.

  • Typical vs. variant DNA sequence

    G

    Typical Sequence
    Substitution

    A

    Variant Sequence

  • References [ 7 ]

rs11213819

Gene: Near the C11orf53 gene
Trait: Less likely to sneeze after eating dark chocolate

C

Human copy from one of your parents

C

Human copy from your other parent
See all information
See all information
Marker Tested
Your Genotype*

  • Biological explanation
    The variant tested is a change from a C to a T in a DNA sequence near the C11orf53 gene. Each copy of a T at this position is associated with slightly lower odds of sneezing after eating dark chocolate, compared to average.

  • Typical vs. variant DNA sequence

    C

    Typical Sequence
    Substitution

    T

    Variant Sequence

  • References [ 7 ]
* 23andMe always reports genotypes based on the 'positive' strand of the human genome reference sequence (build 37). Other sources sometimes report genotypes using the opposite strand. This test cannot distinguish which copy you received from which parent.

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