You are viewing Łukasz Przelaskowski's 23andMe Ancestry report.

Paternal Haplogroup

You descend from a long line of men that can be traced back to eastern Africa over 275,000 years ago. These are the men of your paternal line, and your paternal haplogroup sheds light on their story.

Łukasz, you belong to paternal haplogroup N-M2783.

As our ancestors ventured out of eastern Africa, they branched off in diverse groups that crossed and recrossed the globe over tens of thousands of years. Some of their migrations can be traced through haplogroups, families of lineages that descend from a common ancestor. Your paternal haplogroup can reveal the path followed by the men of your paternal line.

Migrations of Your Paternal Line

275,000 Years Ago
76,000 Years Ago
53,000 Years Ago
45,000 Years Ago

Haplogroup A

275,000 Years Ago

The stories of all of our paternal lines can be traced back over 275,000 years to just one man: the common ancestor of haplogroup A. Current evidence suggests he was one of thousands of men who lived in eastern Africa at the time. However, while his male-line descendants passed down their Y chromosomes generation after generation, the lineages from the other men died out. Over time his lineage alone gave rise to all other haplogroups that exist today.

Haplogroup F-M89

76,000 Years Ago

For more than 100,000 years, your paternal-line ancestors gradually moved north, following available prey and resources as a shifting climate made new routes hospitable and sealed off others. Then, around 60,000 years ago, a small group ventured across the Red Sea and deeper into southwest Asia. Your ancestors were among these men, and the next step in their story is marked by the rise of haplogroup F-M89 in the Arabian Peninsula.

Haplogroup K-M9

53,000 Years Ago

Passing through the Middle East, your paternal-line ancestors continued on to the steppes of Central Asia, vast grasslands stretching all the way from central Europe to the eastern edge of Asia. From its origin in the western steppes nearly 50,000 years ago, haplogroup K-M9 spread across most of the globe. In fact, nearly half of all paternal lineages outside of Africa are branches of haplogroup K.

Haplogroup N-M231

45,000 Years Ago

From there, the story of your lineage continues to the east, where haplogroup N-M231 originated in southwestern China about 45,000 years ago. Over the millennia, men bearing haplogroup N migrated north into Siberia and then westward to the edge of Europe.


< 45,000
Years Ago

Origin and Migrations of Haplogroup N-M46

Your paternal line stems from haplogroup N-M46. The high diversity of haplogroup N-M46 in northern China suggests that it originated there about 12,000 years ago, then spread north and west throughout much of northern Eurasia. N-M46 almost certainly arose after the colonization of the Americas about 14,000 years ago, because it was not carried from Siberia to Alaska by the northeast Asians who were the first people to enter the New World.

The westward expansion of N-M46 took place gradually, probably during the last 2,000 years, as men bearing the haplogroup expanded across the Volga River drainage and the Ural Mountains of Russia, eventually reaching eastern Europe. Today about 40% of northern Russian men and 40% of male Pomors, who live along the White Sea on Russia's northwest coast, carry the N-M46 haplogroup. The levels of N-M46 decrease among Russian men farther south, with about 20% of central Russians and only 10% of southern Russians bearing the haplogroup.

The haplogroup can also be found among men in the Baltic states and Scandinavia, the western terminus of its migration. N-M46 is the most common haplogroup in Finland – where it averages about 60% – and is more common in the eastern half of the country, a further indication that it probably spread there from Asia. It reaches levels as high as 15% in Sweden and about 10% in northern Norway, suggesting a major component of Scandinavian male ancestry may trace to Asia rather than Europe.


< 45,000
Years Ago

Your paternal haplogroup, N-M2783, traces back to a man who lived less than 45,000 years ago.

That's nearly 1800.0 generations ago! What happened between then and now? As researchers and citizen scientists discover more about your haplogroup, new details may be added to the story of your paternal line.



N-M2783 is relatively common among 23andMe customers.

Today, you share your haplogroup with all the men who are paternal-line descendants of the common ancestor of N-M2783, including other 23andMe customers.
1 in 900
23andMe customers share your haplogroup assignment.


Your haplogroup is common in men with indigenous Siberian ancestry.


Haplogroup N-M178 is the most common paternal lineage in people of indigenous Siberian descent, but it probably only arrived in Siberia within the last 3,000 years. By the time members of N-M178 arrived in Siberia from Mongolia and northern China, other humans had probably been there for tens of thousands of years. In fact, research suggests that modern humans have been in Siberia near the Altai Mountains for 40,000 years, mostly as hunter-gatherers. The original inhabitants of Siberia probably migrated from Central Asia, not long after the original human exodus from Africa 50,000-70,000 years ago.

The Genetics of Paternal Haplogroups

Read Scientific Details

Your haplogroup can tell you about your paternal line.

Each generation, fathers pass copies of their Y chromosomes on to their sons. Whereas most of the genome exists in two copies that exchange pieces between generations in a process called recombination, the Y chromosome is transmitted unshuffled. Because of this unusual pattern of inheritance, the Y contains rich information about paternal lineages.

A small number of DNA changes, called mutations, generally occur from one generation to the next. Because the Y chromosome does not recombine between generations, these mutations accumulate in patterns that uniquely mark individual lineages, and scientists can compare the resulting sequence differences by constructing a tree. This tree shows how paternal lineages relate to one another, including the observations that all human paternal lineages share a most recent common ancestor approximately 275,000 years ago.

The term "haplogroup" refers to a family of lineages that share a common ancestor and, therefore, a particular set of mutations. Each paternal haplogroup is named with a letter indicating the major cluster of branches to which it belongs, followed by the name of a mutation that is shared by a subset of the major cluster.

We identify your haplogroups by determining which branches of the Y-chromosome tree correspond to your DNA. Because more closely related lineages tend to share geographic roots, your haplogroup can provide insight into the origins of some of your ancient ancestors.

What's the story of your paternal line?

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