You are viewing Łukasz Przelaskowski's 23andMe Ancestry report.

Maternal Haplogroup

You descend from a long line of women that can be traced back to eastern Africa over 150,000 years ago. These are the women of your maternal line, and your maternal haplogroup sheds light on their story.

Łukasz, you belong to maternal haplogroup K1.

As our ancestors ventured out of eastern Africa, they branched off in diverse groups that crossed and recrossed the globe over tens of thousands of years. Some of their migrations can be traced through haplogroups, families of lineages that descend from a common ancestor. Your maternal haplogroup can reveal the path followed by the women of your maternal line.

Migrations of Your Maternal Line

180,000 Years Ago
65,000 Years Ago
59,000 Years Ago
57,000 Years Ago
47,000 Years Ago
27,000 Years Ago

Haplogroup L

180,000 Years Ago

If every person living today could trace his or her maternal line back over thousands of generations, all of our lines would meet at a single woman who lived in eastern Africa between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago. Though she was one of perhaps thousands of women alive at the time, only the diverse branches of her haplogroup have survived to today. The story of your maternal line begins with her.

Haplogroup L3

65,000 Years Ago

Your branch of L is haplogroup L3, which arose from a woman who likely lived in eastern Africa between 60,000 and 70,000 years ago. While many of her descendants remained in Africa, one small group ventured east across the Red Sea, likely across the narrow Bab-el-Mandeb into the tip of the Arabian Peninsula.

Haplogroup N

59,000 Years Ago

Your story continues with haplogroup N, one of two branches that arose from L3 in southwestern Asia. Researchers have long debated whether they arrived there via the Sinai Peninsula, or made the hop across the Red Sea at the Bab-el-Mandeb. Though their exact routes are disputed, there is no doubt that the women of haplogroup N migrated across all of Eurasia, giving rise to new branches from Portugal to Polynesia.

Haplogroup R

57,000 Years Ago

One of those branches is haplogroup R, which traces back to a woman who lived soon after the migration out of Africa. She likely lived in southwest Asia, perhaps in the Arabian peninsula, and her descendants lived and migrated alongside members of haplogroup N. Along the way, R gave rise to a number of branches that are major haplogroups in their own right.

Haplogroup U

47,000 Years Ago

Haplogroup U was one of the earliest offshoots of R, and traces back to a woman who lived nearly 50,000 years ago. Over time, her descendants have migrated into Europe, parts of Asia, and even back into Africa, giving rise to numerous branches spanning the three continents.

Haplogroup K

27,000 Years Ago

Your maternal-line story continues with haplogroup K, which is actually a branch of haplogroup U8. K traces back to a woman who likely lived in the Middle East less than 30,000 years ago. Since then, her descendants have migrated in all directions, and can be found throughout Europe, Northern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and to the east in Central Asia.


Years Ago

Origin and Migrations of Haplogroup K1

Haplogroup K1 is a relatively old branch of haplogroup K that traces back to a woman who lived approximately 22,000 years ago. She and her early descendants likely lived in the Middle East, where the K haplogroup traces its origins and continues to have a strong presence. Then, about 12,000 to 15,000 years ago, some women carrying K1 likely joined early migrations that moved west into Europe. The Ice Age was ending and temperate forests spread over the previously frigid continent. Human populations that had been blocked by massive ice sheets now expanded into the interior. Others came later, entering Europe with the spread of agriculture from the Middle East about 8,000 years ago.

Today, members of K1 can be found throughout Europe, the Middle East, and even in Central Asia.



K1 is relatively common among 23andMe customers.

Today, you share your haplogroup with all the maternal-line descendants of the common ancestor of K1, including other 23andMe customers.
1 in 560
23andMe customers share your haplogroup assignment.


Ötzi the Ice Man also belonged to haplogroup K

Ötzi was named for the Ötztal Mountains

Ötzi the Iceman was discovered in 1991, protruding from a snow-bank high in the Alps near the Austrian-Italian border. His 5,300-year-old remains turned out to be so well preserved that researchers were able to construct a detailed account of his life and death. Chemical analysis of Ötzi's teeth indicates he came from the Italian side of the Alps. He had suffered during the year before his death with whipworm, a stomach parasite that was found in his digestive tract. Yet he was fit enough to climb 6,500 feet in elevation during the day or two before he met his end in a rocky alpine hollow. Ötzi apparently was murdered, struck by a stone arrow point that was found lodged in his left shoulder. The twisted position of his body indicates that the murderer, or one of his accomplices, pulled the arrow's shaft out of Ötzi's prone body.

Yet whoever killed Ötzi did not take the valuable and finely wrought copper axe that he carried with him — an indicator that at the age of 45, the Ice Man may have been a figure of some importance in his community. Recently, scientists who were able to extract DNA from Ötzi's remains discovered that he belonged to haplogroup K, which reaches levels of 20 to 30% in present-day populations in the region. But Ötzi's maternal line, which fell into the K1 family of haplogroup K, did not match any of the branches that are known today. His maternal line must have died out in the 5,300 years since Ötzi's death.

The Genetics of Maternal Haplogroups

Read Scientific Details

Your haplogroup is determined by your mitochondrial DNA.

Each generation, mothers pass down copies of their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to their children. While most of your genome exists in 23 pairs of chromosomes that exchange pieces between generations in a process called recombination, mtDNA is transmitted unshuffled. Because of this unusual pattern of inheritance, mtDNA contains rich information about maternal lineages.

A small number of DNA changes, called mutations, generally occur from one generation to the next. Because mtDNA does not recombine between generations, these mutations accumulate in patterns that uniquely mark individual lineages. Scientists can compare the sequence differences that result by constructing a tree. This tree shows how maternal lineages relate to one another, including the observation that they all share a most recent common ancestor approximately 150,000 to 200,000 years ago.

The term "haplogroup" refers to a family of lineages that share a common ancestor and, therefore, a particular set of mutations. We identify your haplogroup by determining which branches of the mtDNA tree correspond to your DNA. Because more closely related lineages tend to share geographic roots, your haplogroup can provide insight into the origins of some of your ancient maternal-line ancestors.

Maternal haplogroups are named with sequences of letters and numbers that reflect the structure of the tree and how the branches relate to one another.

What's the story of your maternal line?

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